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Cardiac muscle is also known as myocardium.

This type of muscle is found only in the walls of the heart. Cardiac muscle cells are quadrangular in terms of shape, and have a single central nucleus. Like the skeletal muscles the cells of cardiac muscle tissue are striated. This is caused by the arrangement of protein fibers inside of the cells which give the appearance of light and dark bands. Striations indicate that a muscle cell is very strong. These muscles are thickened because they must contract frequently to move blood in and out of the heart.

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It has similarities with smooth muscle in that it cannot be controlled consciously Striated muscle contracts and relaxes in short, intense bursts, while smooth muscle sustains longer contractions. What is Bursitis of the Knee? Knee bursitis is a condition which occurs when a bursa in the knee becomes irritated, inflamed, or infected. Bursae are small, closed, sacs which contain synovial fluid. They are located around joints and function as a gliding surface to reduce friction during joint movement and cushion the pressure points between the bones and tendons, muscles and skin near your joints.

Bursitis usually occurs when there is excessive friction over the bursa causing it to become inflamed, or when it dries out so it no longer works properly. They are found all over the body and there are approximately fourteen around the knee. Any of the bursae in your knee can become inflamed, but knee bursitis most commonly occurs over the kneecap or on the inner side of your knee below the joint. Although it is usually not infectious aseptic bursitis , the bursa can become infected. This condition is called septic bursitis.

There are 13 essential vitamins needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. Each of the vitamins has an important job and is required for the body to function properly. Vitamin D can be synthesised by the skin when it is exposed to sunlight but most vitamins cannot be made by the body. Vitamin deficiency can cause health problems so it is important to ensure you get enough of the essential vitamins by eating a balanced and varied diet.

Vitamins are grouped into two categories: Water-Soluble Vitamins.

Sports Medicine | Panther Sports Medicine

Vitamin B12 is stored in the liver but the other vitamins cannot be stored in the body and are passed through our urine. Our bodies require a continuous daily supply of them. Fat-Soluble Vitamins. Once absorbed into the body, they are stored in fatty tissues and the liver.

They stay in the body for longer.. Sports and Exercise Medicine or Sports Medicine for short is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and focuses on preventing, diagnosing and treating sports or exercise related injuries. Sport Medicine doctors are physicians who have completed medical school and appropriate residency training, and gained specialist qualifications in sports medicine. They can provide expert diagnosis and management of all musculoskeletal injuries for professional and recreational athletes, adults, teens and children.

Some specialise in looking after children and teens, whose growing bodies can need different treatment to those of adults. They treat acute and overuse injuries that occur at work or during everyday activities and help those with disabilities who are trying to increase mobility and capability. They can also provide exercise intervention to prevent and manage chronic illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma and obesity. For the elite athlete, Sports Medicine can help push the boundaries of physical performance. Most sports teams have employed team physicians for many years but it is only since the late 20th century that Sports Medicine has emerged as a distinct and fast-growing field of health care.

Biomechanics also known as Kinesiology is the study of the laws of physics as applied to the movement and mechanical functioning of the human body. Biomechanics examine forces acting on the body, the effects of these forces and how muscles, bones and joints react under certain conditions. This helps them to understand human movement better, and to learn more about ways humans can move well and with less chance of being injured.

By studying and analysing athletes' performance and technique, a sports biomechanist can provide valuable guidance to athletes working on practical solutions to improve their skills and body performance.

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Medication overuse headaches MOH are also known as analgesic rebound headaches or rebound headaches. MOH frequently occur daily, can be very painful and are a common cause of chronic daily headache. They are caused by regular, long-term use of medication to treat headaches, such as migraine. People who use acute pain-relief medicine more than two or three times a week can set off a cycle - the medicine offers temporarily relief of the head pain, but the head pain returns when the medication wears off.

As each dose of medicine wears off, the pain comes back, leading to increasing doses. And so the cycle continues until you start to have daily headaches, with more severe pain, more often. The need to alleviate these withdrawal symptoms perpetuates further use of painkilling drugs and can result in a cycle of medication overuse.

The rebound headaches can occur as a withdrawal reaction when the pain relief is not taken. MOH usually start as occasional migraines or tension headaches.

Orthopaedic Knowledge Update: Sports Medicine 5th Edition

Over time, these become more frequent, and more medication is needed to control the pain. A daily headache develops, which is usually present on awakening in the morning. Many common pain relievers, when taken in large enough amounts, can cause rebound headaches.

The only way of treating this condition is to stop the medication. The withdrawal process is much individualised, based on the types of drugs being taken. Usually, headaches will get easier to control when the medication is stopped or gradually reduced, but during the period when medications are reduced the headaches can increase and stopping medication suddenly may lead to increased headache severity for several days.

In some cases a detoxification program may be required. For MOH caused by certain pain relievers, such as sedatives and narcotics, supervision by a medical professional in a hospital may be needed to come off of the drugs. It is an overuse knee injury rather than a traumatic injury This condition most often develops during growth spurts when bones, muscles, tendons, and other structures are growing quickly and not always at the same rate.

Frequent use and physical stress cause inflammation at the point where the tendon from the kneecap patella attaches to the shinbone tibia. The patellar tendon remains strong, but the attachment at the growth plate can be weak and slowly separate. As the growth plate tries to heal, extra bone will form. This may be noticed as a bump at the front of the knee. In most cases, the condition usually resolves by itself once the child's bones stop growing. Simple measures can be taken, such as rest over-the-counter medication, and stretching and strengthening exercises.

A ganglion cyst is a lump that most commonly develops on a joint or tendon the tissue that connects muscle to bone. They are not cancerous and, in most cases, are harmless.

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Ganglion cysts are typically round or oval and are filled with a jellylike fluid , similar to the fluid that lubricates your joints. Ganglion cysts most commonly develop on the backs of hands, fingers and wrists, and can also occur on the feet, ankles and knees.

These cysts can occur near other joints as well. Shape and size. A ganglion cyst looks like a smooth round or oval lump under the skin, although smaller ganglions can remain hidden under the skin occult ganglions. They vary in size, ranging from cm in diameter The size of a cyst can fluctuate, often getting larger when the joint is used repetitively With rest, the lump typically becomes smaller.

Most ganglion cysts do not cause symptoms, but if they press on a nearby nerve it can cause pain, numbness, , and muscle weakness. Their location can sometimes interfere with joint movement.