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Contents:
  1. Meaning of "Alexandria" in the German dictionary
  2. Meaning of "Provence" in the German dictionary
  3. ERATOSTHENES - Definition and synonyms of Eratosthenes in the German dictionary

Meaning of "Alexandria" in the German dictionary

The columns on the lower level frame four aediculae containing statues of female personifications of virtues: Sophia wisdom , Episteme knowledge , Ennoia intelligence and Arete excellence. The columns on the second level flank four podia , paralleling the aediculae below, which held statues of Celsus and his son.

Bibliothek von Alexandria

The apse contained a podium for a statue, now lost, that likely depicted Celsus, although some scholars have suggested it was Minerva, goddess of wisdom. The three remaining walls were lined with either two or three levels of niches measuring 2. The ceiling was flat and may have had a central round oculus to provide more light.

Meaning of "Provence" in the German dictionary

The choice to depict him in full armor suggests that Celsus's descendants considered his military career memorable and a source of pride. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dio Chrysostom: Politics, Letters, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. Nevertheless, in 92 the same office went to a Greek, Ti. Celsus' son, Aquila, was also to be made suffectus in , although he is certainly remembered more as the builder of the famous library his father envisioned for Ephesus. Vespasian and the partes Flavianae, Issues Libraries in the Ancient World. New Haven: Yale University Press. Lonely Planet.

Retrieved University of Michigan Press. A cuirass statue stood in the central niche of the upper storey. The three worlds of Paul of Tarsus. Hueber, V. Strocka, "Die Bibliothek des Celsus. The origin and evolution of architectural form of Roman library.

Wydaw-a UW. After all, the library was simultaneously the sepulchral monument of Celsus and the crypt contained his sarcophagus. The very idea of honouring his memory by erecting a public library above his grave need not have been the original conception of Tiberius Iulius Aquila the founder of the library.

Although the legal status of manubiae is much discussed and still not entirely clear, it appears that structures erected with such funds automatically became public property. See on this Churchill , p.

Otherwise, all imperial libraries were probably paid for by funds from the fiscus or aerarium or both. We need not here attempt to distinguish between those two sources of public funding, which were for all practical purposes virtually indistinguishable : Lo Cascio , p. The literature on Roman libraries is vast.


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Intensely and understandably interested in the subject, modern scholars have returned repeatedly to the available evidence — literary, archaeological, epigraphical, papyrological — in hopes of constructing an accurate picture of what Roman libraries were like and how they functioned. In recent years, a considerable body of new evidence has become available : new material remains have come to light, and long-known ones have been subjected to careful re-examination; new techniques of criticism have been applied to ancient texts, notably the Historia Augusta; and fresh studies of inscriptions and papyri have contributed in important ways.

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ERATOSTHENES - Definition and synonyms of Eratosthenes in the German dictionary

This is, then, a good time to take stock of where we are and of what is and is not known, and that is the purpose of this article1. The volumes will be primarily literature, related to literature, scientific, or reference works, as opposed to public or private records or documents2. We assume, but cannot prove, that in most cases the library structure was built using public funds4, while the collections of books may have come from a variety of sources.

Theoretically, at least, any library created as the property of the populus Romanus could be used by any citizen, so an obvious secondary meaning. Public librairies in the city of Rome : from the Augustan age to the time of Diocletian [article] T. Keith Dix George W. Introduction 1.